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Scientific Research Papers
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I. Giovos, R.N. Aga Spyridopoulou, N. Doumpas, K. Glaus, P. Kleitou, Z. Kazlari, D. Katsada, D. Loukovitis, I. Mantzouni, M. Papapetrou, Y.P. Papastamatiou, D.K. Moutopoulos.

Approaching the “real” state of elasmobranch fisheries and trade: A case  study from the Mediterranean

Ocean and Coastal Management 211 (2021) 105743

Bianca S. Rangel, Neil Hammerschlag, James A. Sulikowski, Renata Guimarães Moreira.

Physiological markers suggest energetic and nutritional adjustments  in male sharks linked to reproduction

Springer Oecologia 30 July 2021

L.F.G. Gutowsky, M. James Rider, R.P. Roemer, A.J. Gallagher, M.R. Heithaus, S. J. Cooke, N. Hammerschlag

Large sharks exhibit varying behavioral responses to major hurricanes

Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 256 (2021) 107373

Felipe Galván-Magaña, Jose Leonardo Castillo-Geniz, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, James Ketchum, A. Peter Klimley, Sergio Ramírez-Amaro, Yassir Eden Torres-Rojas, Javier Tovar-Ávila 
Shark ecology, the role of the apex predator and current conservation status. 
Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 83 2019

Mondo, K., Hammerschlag, N., Basile, M., Pablo, J., Banack, S.A. and Mash, D.C., 2012. 

Cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in shark fins. 

Marine drugs, 10(2), pp.509-520.

Lee, P.F. and Shao, K.T., 2009. 

Two new records of Lamniform shark from the waters adjacent to Taiwan.

Journal of Fishery Society of Taiwan,  36(4), pp.303-311.

Ferretti, F., Myers, R.A., Serena, F. and Lotze, H.K., 2008. 

Shark Declines in the Mediterranean Sea:  Loss of large predatory sharks from the Mediterranean Sea. 

Conservation Biology, 22(4), pp.952-964.   Pew – Lenfest Ocean Program

Hareide, N.R., Carlson, J., Clarke, M., Clarke, S., Ellis, J., Fordham, S., Fowler, S., Pinho, M., Raymakers, C., Serena, F. and Seret, B., 2007. 

Strengthening European fisheries management: Options for enforcing the shark finning ban.  Conclusions of an expert workshop on European shark fisheries, trade and markets.  European Shark Fisheries: a preliminary investigation into fisheries, conversion factors, trade products, markets and management measures. 

Pew – Lenfest Ocean Program;  European Elasmobranch Association

Michael Darmanin & Mark Dimech 2007 

Identifying Maltese fishing grounds.

The Malta Centre for Fisheries Sciences

Myers, R.A., Baum, J.K., Shepherd, T.D., Powers, S.P. and Peterson, C.H., 2007. 

Cascading effects of the loss of apex predatory sharks from a coastal ocean. 

Science, 315(5820), pp.1846-1850.


Martin, R.A., 2007. 

A review of shark agonistic displays: comparison of display features and implications for shark–human interactions. 

Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 40(1), pp.3-34.

Clarke, S.C., McAllister, M.K., Milner‐Gulland, E.J., Kirkwood, G.P., Michielsens, C.G., Agnew, D.J., Pikitch, E.K., Nakano, H. and Shivji, M.S., 2006. 

Global estimates of shark catches using trade records from commercial markets. 

Ecology letters, 9(10), pp.1115-1126.

Gulyugin, S.Y., Litvinov, F.F. and Sirota, A.M., 2006. 

The distribution and relative abundance of elasmobranch species along North-Western African shelf and slope (from Gibraltar to 16 N) as compared to retrospective data (70s-80s) and environment. 

CM 2006/D, 3.

Curmi, A., 2005. 

Taking a bite out of fiction-Media effects and social fears. A case study on “Jaws”.   

Faculty of Education, Psychology Department, University of Malta

Bascompte, J., Melián, C.J. and Sala, E., 2005. 

Interaction strength combinations and the overfishing of a marine food web. 

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(15), pp.5443-5447.

Reyes, L.M. and García-Borboroglu, P., 2004. 

Killer whale (Orcinus orca) predation on sharks in Patagonia, Argentina: a first report. 

Aquatic Mammals, 30(3), pp.376-379.

Baum, J.K. and Myers, R.A., 2004. 

Shifting baselines and the decline of pelagic sharks in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Ecology Letters, 7(2), pp.135-145.

Schembri, T., Schembri, P.J. and Fergusson, I.K., 2003. 

Revision of the records of shark and ray species from the Maltese Islands (Chordata: Chondrichthyes). 

The Central Mediterranean Naturalist 4(1): 71 – 104 Malta: December

Dept. of Local Govt. 2003 

OC:L2 Shark Hazard Report 

Perth, Western Australia. 2003

Shimadaa, K. 2002. 

Teeth of embryos in lamniform sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) 

Env. Bio. of Fishes 63: 309–319, 2002. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gardner, M.G. and Ward, R.D., 2002. 

Taxonomic affinities within Australian and New Zealand Mustelus sharks (Chondrichthyes: Triakidae) inferred from allozymes, mitochondrial DNA and precaudal vertebrae counts. 

Copeia, 2002(2), pp.356-363.

Kitchell, J.F., Essington, T.E., Boggs, C.H., Schindler, D.E. and Walters, C.J., 2002. 

The role of sharks and longline fisheries in a pelagic ecosystem of the central Pacific. 

Ecosystems, 5(2), pp.202-216.

Cunningham-Day, R. 2002 

Sharks In Danger 

Biologist 2002

Brown, B.R., Hutchison, J.C., Hughes, M.E., Kellogg, D.R. and Murray, R.W., 2002. 

Electrical characterization of gel collected from shark electrosensors. 

Physical Review E, 65(6), p.061903.

Castro, J.I., 2002. 

On the origins of the Spanish word ‘tiburón’, and the English word ‘shark’. 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, 65(3), pp.249-253.

Knoff, M., São Clemente, S.C.D., Pinto, R.M. and Gomes, D.C., 2001. 

Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil. 

Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 96(1), pp.81-87.

Bekoff, M., 2001. 

Social play behaviour. Cooperation, fairness, trust, and the evolution of morality. 

Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8(2), pp.81-90.

Caldicott, D.G., Mahajani, R. and Kuhn, M., 2001. 

The anatomy of a shark attack: a case report and review of the literature. 

Injury, 32(6), pp.445-453.

Hoelzel, A.R., 2001. 

Shark fishing in fin soup. 

Conservation Genetics, 2(1), pp.69-72.

Watson, R.R. and Dickson, K.A., 2001. 

Enzyme activities support the use of liver lipid–derived ketone bodies as aerobic fuels in muscle tissues of active sharks. 

Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 74(2), pp.273-282.

Olson, P.D. and Caira, J.N., 2001. 

Two new species of Litobothrium Dailey, 1969 (Cestoda: Litobothriidea) from thresher sharks in the Gulf of California, Mexico, with redescriptions of two species in the genus. 

Systematic Parasitology, 48(3), pp.159-177.

Kalmijn, A.J., 2000. 

Detection and processing of electromagnetic and near–field acoustic signals in elasmobranch fishes. 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 355(1401), pp.1135-1141.

Mollet, H.F., Testi, A.D., Compagno, L.J. and Francis, M.P., 2002. 

Re-identification of a lamnid shark embryo. 

Fishery Bulletin, 100(4), pp.865-875.

Lucas, Z. and Stobo, W.T., 2000. 

Shark‐inflicted mortality on a population of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) at Sable Island, Nova Scotia. 

Journal of Zoology, 252(3), pp.405-414.

Collins, M.A., Yau, C., Nolan, C.P., Bagley, P.M. and Priede, I.G., 1999. 

Behavioural observations on the scavenging fauna of the Patagonian slope. 

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79(6), pp.963-970.

McKendry, J.E., Bernier, N.J., Takei, Y., Duff, D.W., Olson, K.R. and Perry, S.F., 1999. 

Natriuretic peptides and the control of catecholamine release in two freshwater teleost and a marine elasmobranch fish. 

Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 20(1), pp.61-77.

Carlson, J.K. and Brusher, J.H., 1999. 

An index of abundance for coastal species of juvenile sharks from the northeast Gulf of Mexico. 

Marine Fisheries Review, 61(3), pp.37-45.

Stevens, J.E., 1994. 

The delicate constitution of Sharks.

Bioscience, 44(10), pp.661-664.

Dayton, L., 1991. 

Save the sharks. 

New Scientist, 130(1773), pp.34- 38.

Michael K. Stoskopf, Bradley Smith, Gerritt Klay, 1984. 

Clinical Note: Blood sampling of captive sharks 

J Zoo an Med 15, 116 – 117

Barry, M.A. and Boord, R.L., 1984. 

The spiracular organ of sharks and skates: anatomical evidence indicating a mechanoreceptive role. 

Science, 226(4677), pp.990-992.

Stevens, J.D., 1984. 

Life-history and ecology of sharks at Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the Royal society of London. Series B. 

Biological sciences, 222(1226), pp.79-106.

Katsuki, Y. and Hashimoto, T., 1969. 

Shark pit organs: enhancement of mechanosensitivity by potassium ions. 

Science, 166(3910), pp.1287-1289.

Oguri, M., 1964. 

Rectal glands of marine and fresh-water sharks: comparative histology. 

Science, 144(3622), pp.1151-1152.

Schultz, L.P., Gilbert, P.W. and Springer, S., 1961. 

Shark attacks. 

Science, 134(3472), pp.87-88.

Gilbert, P.W., Schultz, L.P. and Springer, S., 1960. 

Shark attacks during 1959. 

Science, 132(3423), pp.323-326.

Hogben, C.A.M., 1959. 

Electrophysiology of the elasmobranch stomach. 

Science, 129(3357), pp.1224-1225.

Gilbert, P.W. and Wood, F.G., 1957. 

Method of anesthetizing large sharks and rays safely and rapidly. 

Science, 126(3266), pp.212-213.

Hunt, R.S., 1951. 

The sharks of Ahwaz. 

BMJ Military Health, 97(2), pp.79-82.

Gudger, E.W., 1950. 

A Boy Attacked by a Shark, July 25, 1936 in Buzzard’s Bay, Massachusetts with Notes on Attacks by Another Shark Along the New Jersey Coast in 1916. 

The American Midland Naturalist, 44(3), pp.714-719.

Burton, E.M., 1935. 

Shark attacks along the South Carolina coast. 

The Scientific Monthly, 40(3), pp.279-283.

Parker, G.H., 1933. 

The color changes of elasmobranch fishes.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 19(12), pp.1038-1039.

Gudger, E.W. and Hoffmann, W.H., 1931. 

A shark encircled with a rubber automobile tire. 

Scientific Monthly, 46, pp.281-285.

Scott, GG, 1916. 

The evolutionary significance of the osmotic pressure of the blood. 

The American Naturalist , 50 (599), pp.641-663.

Clark, A.H., 1915. 

Shark intoxication. 

Science, 41(1065), pp.795-797.

Wilder, B.G., 1880. 

Do Sharks Swallow Their Young for Protection? 

Science, (20), pp.236-236.

Home, E., 1832, December. 

On the mode of breeding of the ovo-viviparous shark, and on the aëration of the fætal blood in different classes of animals. 

In Abstracts of the Papers Printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (No. 1, pp. 374-376). London: The Royal Society.


Rachel Robbins, Andrew Fox

Further evidence of pigmentation change in white sharks,  Carcharodon carcharias

Marine and Freshwater Research, 2012, 63, 1215–1217

Anderson, S.D., Chapple, T.K., Jorgensen, S.J., Klimley, A.P. and Block, B.A., 2011. 

Long-term individual identification and site fidelity of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, off California using dorsal fins. 

Marine Biology, 158(6), pp.1233-1237.

Robbins, R.L., 2007. 

Environmental variables affecting the sexual segregation of great white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands South Australia. 

Journal of fish Biology, 70(5), pp.1350-1364.

Nyberg, K.G., Ciampaglio, C.N. and Wray, G.A., 2006.

Tracing the ancestry of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, using morphometric analyses of fossil teeth. 

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(4), pp.806-814.

Bonfil, R., Meÿer, M., Scholl, M.C., Johnson, R., O’Brien, S., Oosthuizen, H., Swanson, S., Kotze, D. and Paterson, M., 2005. 

Transoceanic migration, spatial dynamics, and population linkages of white sharks. 

Science, 310(5745), pp.100-103.

Martin, R.A., Hammerschlag, N., Collier, R.S. and Fallows, C., 2005. 

Predatory behaviour of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) at Seal Island, South Africa. 

JMBA-Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 85(5), pp.1121

Gabriotti, Vittorio, and Alessandro De Maddalena. 

“Observations of an approach behavior to a possible prey performed by some great white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758), at the Neptune Islands, South Australia.”

Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia 55 (2004): 151-157.

Galaz, T. and De Maddalena, A., 2004. 

On a Great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias(Linnaeus, 1758), trapped in a tuna cage off Libya, Mediterranean Sea. 

In Annales. Anali za istrske in mediteranske studije.(Series historia naturalis) (Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 159-164).

Morey, G., Martínez, M., Massutí, E. and Moranta, J., 2003. 

The occurrence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean Sea). 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, 68(4), pp.425-432.

Boustany, A.M., Davis, S.F., Pyle, P., Anderson, S.D., Le Boeuf, B.J. and Block, B.A., 2002. 

Expanded niche for white sharks. 

Nature, 415(6867), pp.35-36.

Dion, S. 2002 

Cage Diving & Great White Shark Conditioning. 

Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch (2002).

Plan, R., 2002. 

White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) Recovery Plan.  Environment Australia, Commonwealth of Australia.

De Maddalena, A., Zuffa, M., Lipej, L. and Celona, A., 2001. 

An analysis of the photographic evidences of the largest Great White sharks, Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758), captured in the Mediterranean Sea with considerations about the maximum size of the species. 

In Annales, Series historia naturalis (Vol. 25, pp. 193-206).

Fergusson, I.K., Compagno, L.J. and Marks, M.A., 2000. 

Predation by white sharks Carcharodon carcharias (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae) upon chelonians, with new records from the Mediterranean Sea and a first record of the ocean sunfish Mola mola (Osteichthyes: Molidae) as stomach contents. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 58(4), pp.447-453.

De Maddalena, A., 2000. Historical and contemporary presence of the great white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758), in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea. In Annales, Series historia naturalis (Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 3-18).

Goldman, K.J. and Anderson, S.D., 1999. 

Space utilization and swimming depth of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, at the South Farallon Islands, central California. 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, 56(4), pp.351-364.

Proponent, B., 1998. 

Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Fisheries.   (Inclusion of Carcharodon carcharias (Great White Shark) in Appendix III in accordance with Article II.3.and in accordance with the provisions of Article V.   

Environment Australia  CITES 2001)

Compagno, L.J., Marks, M.A. and Fergusson, I.K., 1997. 

Threatened fishes of the world: Carcharodon carcharias

(Linnaeus, 1758)(Lamnidae).

Environmental Biology of Fishes, 50(1), p.61.

Cliff, G., Dudley, S.F.J. and Davis, B., 1989. 

Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Natal, South Africa. 2. The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus). 

South African Journal of Marine Science, 8(1), pp.131-144.

Tricas, T.C., 1985. 

Feeding ethology of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. 

Memoirs of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, 9, pp.81-91.

Seigel , Jeffrey A. and Swift, Camm C.,   1985. 

Biology of the White Shark Carcharodon carcharias. – A Symposium 

Memoirs. Southern California Academy of Sciences Vol.9


Chi-Ju Yu, Shoou-Jeng Joung, Hua-Hsun Hsu, Chia-Yen Lin, Tzu-Chi Hsieh,Kwang-Ming Liu and Atsuko Yamaguchi. 2021
Spatial–Temporal Distribution of Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios, Inferred from over 250 Individuals Recorded in the Three Oceans
Animals 2021, 11, 2947.

Nicolas Acuña-Perales, Francisco Córdova-Zavaleta,  Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto, and Jeffrey C. Mangel, 2021. 

First records of the megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Taylor, Compagno & Struhsaker, 1983) as bycatch in Peruvian small-scale net fisheries. 

Acuña-Perales et al. Marine Biodiversity Records (2021) 14:1


Yun-Ru Ju, Chih-Feng Chen, Chiu-Wen Chen […] Cheng-Di Dong 2021 Profile and consumption risk assessment of trace elements in megamouth sharks (Megachasma pelagios) captured from the Pacific Ocean to the east of Taiwan 

Environmental Pollution

Laurent Duchatelet, Victoria Moris, Taketeru Tomita[…]Jérôme Mallefet  2020 

The megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, is not a luminous species 


Shaleyla Kelez, Rossana Maguiño Napuri, Alejandra Mendoza Pfennig, Oswaldo Caldas Martinez, Antonio Torres Carrasco, 2020. 

First reports of Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios Taylor, Compagno & Struhsaker, 1983 (Lamniformes, Megachasmidae), in Peru. 

Check List 16 (5): 1361–1367

Yuuki Y. Watanabe Yannis P. Papastamatiou, 2019,  Distribution, body size and biology of the megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios  

doi: 10.1111/jfb.14007

Shang-Yin Vanson Liu, Shoou Jeng Joung, Chi-Ju Yu […] Kwang-Ming Liu  2018  

Genetic diversity and connectivity of the megamouth shark ( Megachasma pelagios ) 


Jimmy Martínez-Ortiz, Darwin Mendoza-Intriago, Walter Tigrero-Gonzalez, Gabriela Flores-Rivera, Rubén López-Párraga  2017  

New records of megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios off Ecuador, Eastern Pacific Ocean. 

Ciencia Pesquera (2017) 25(2): 27-30

Rodriguez-Ferrer, G., Wetherbee, B.M., Schärer, M., Lilyestrom, C., Zegarra, J.P. and Shivji, M., 2017. 

First record of the megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios,(family Megachasmidae) in the tropical western North Atlantic Ocean. 

Marine Biodiversity Records, 10(1), pp.1-4.

Kazuhiro Nakaya 2015 

Biology of the Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) 

Corpus ID: 208369161

Daniel Fernando, Nishan Perera, David A. Ebert, 2015, 

First record of the megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, (Chondrichthyes: Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) from Sri Lanka, northern Indian Ocean 

Marine Biodiversity Records, page 1 of 3. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, doi:10.1017/S1755267215000512; Vol. 8; e75; 

Ian Macleod 2015 

Conservation of a museum megamouth shark specimen by changing its preservative from aqueous ethanol to aqueous glycerol. 

Article  in  Collection Forum · January 2015 DOI: 10.14351/0831-4985-29.1.73



Tomita, T., Tanaka, S., Sato, K. and Nakaya, K., 2014. 

Pectoral fin of the megamouth shark: skeletal and muscular systems, skin histology, and functional morphology. 

PLoS one, 9(1), p.e86205.

Chia-Hao Chang, Kwang-Tsao Shao, Yeong-Shin Lin […] Nian-Hong, Jang-Liaw  2013 

Complete mitochondrial genome of the megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Chondrichthyes, Megachasmidae) 

Mitochondrial DNA

Jose Leonardo Castillo-Geniz, AI Ocampo-Torres, Kenshu Shimada […] AC Nicholas  2012  

Juvenile megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, caught off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and its significance to chondrichthyan diversity in Mexico 

Ciencias Marinas

Shozo Sawamoto & Rui Matsumoto 2012 

Stomach contents of a megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios from the Kuroshio Extension: evidence for feeding on a euphausiid swarm. 

Plankton Benthos Res 7(4): 203–206, 2012

Ryan M Kempster, Shaun P Collin  2011 

Electrosensory pore distribution and feeding in the megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae)  Article AQUATIC BIOLOGY Vol. 11: 225–228

Nakaya, R. Matsumoto and K. Suda 2008, 
Feeding strategy of the megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes:Megachasmidae) 
Journal of Fish Biology (2008) 73, 17–34

White, W.T., Fahmi, M.A. and Sumadhiharga, K., 2004. A juvenile megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) from northern Sumatra, Indonesia. 

Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 52(2), pp.603-607.

Malcolm J. Smale, Leonard J. V. Compagno, B.A. Human. 2002, 
First megamouth shark from the western Indian Ocean and South Africa 
South African Journal of Science 98 p.350, July/August. 

Kazuhiro Nakaya 2001 

White Band on Upper Jaw of Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios, and Its Presumed Function (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) 

Bull Fac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ. 52(3), 125-129

Alberto F. Amorim, Carlos A. Arfellia & José I. Castro 2000, 
Description of a juvenile megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, caught off Brazil 
Environmental Biology of Fishes 59: 117–123, 

Morrissey, J.F. and Elizaga, E.T., 1999. 

Capture of megamouth 11 in the Philippines. 

Philippine Journal of Science, 36, pp.143-147.

K. Yano Yoshitaka, YabumotoS, Tanaka[…]M. Furuta 1999 

Capture of a mature female megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, from Mie, Japan. 

Conference Paper

Hironobu Ito, Masami Yoshimoto, Hiroaki Somiya  1999  

External Brain Form and Cranial Nerves of the Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios. 


Yoshitaka Yabumoto 1997 Dermal and mucous denticles of a female megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, from Hakata Bay, Japan. 

Article · January 1997

Yoshitaka YabumotoM. GotoK. YanoTeruya Uyeno  1997 

Dentition of a female megamouth, Megachasma pelagios, collected from Hakata Bay, Japan. 

Article Jan 1997 

Takada, K., Hiruda, H., Wakisaka, S., Kudo, S. and Yano, K., 1997. 

A summary of the freezing, thawing, preservation, and display methodology used on a large megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios. 

Biology of the Megamouth Shark,(K. Yano, JF Morrissey, Y. Yabumoto, and K. Nakaya, eds.). Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp.11-10.

Nelson, D.R., McKibben, J.N., Strong, W.R., Lowe, C.G., Sisneros, J.A., Schroeder, D.M. and Lavenberg, R.J., 1997. 

An acoustic tracking of a megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios: a crepuscular vertical migrator. 

Environmental biology of fishes, 49(4), pp.389-399.

Andrew P Martin, Gavin Naylor 1997 

Independent origins of filter-feeding in megamouth and basking sharks (Order Lamniformes) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b gene sequences. 

Biology of the Megamouth Shark, xvi+203pp. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan


Yoshitaka Yabumoto, M. Goto, K. Yano, Teruya Uyeno, 1997. 

Dentition of a female megamouth, Megachasma pelagios, collected from Hakata Bay, Japan. 

Tokai University Press, Tokyo Japan

Ishida, H. & Miyamoto, H. & Kajino, T. & Nakayasu, H. & Nukaya, H. & Tsuji, K.  1996 

Study on the Bile Salt from Megamouth Shark. I. The Structures of a New Bile Alcohol, 7-Deoxyscymnol, and Its New Sodium Sulfates. 

Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 44 (7): 1289–1292

Eugenie Clark, José Castro  1995

Megamama’ is a virgin: dissection of the first female specimen of Megachasma pelagios 

Environmental Biology of Fishes

L.J.V. Compagno  1990 

Relationships of the megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae), with comments on its feeding habits 

Elasmobranchs as Living Resources  357 - 379

Tim M. Berra and J. Barry Hutchins 1990 
A specimen of megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios 
(Megachasmidae) from Western Australia. 

Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 1990, 14(4) 651 – 656

John G. Maisey 1985 

Relationships of the Megamouth Shark, Megachasma 

Copeia 1985(1):228

L.R. TaylorL.J.V. CompagnoP.J. Struhsaker  1983 

Megamouth – A new species, genus, and family of lamnoid shark (Megachasma pelagios, family Megachasmidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences.


Finucci, B., Barnett, A., Bineesh, K.K., Cheok, J., Cotton, C.F., Dharmadi, Graham, K.J., Kulka, D.W., Neat, F.C., Pacoureau, N., Rigby, C.L., Tanaka, S. & Walker, T.I. 2020. 
Hexanchus griseus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020


Bryan McNeil, Dayv Lowry, Shawn Larson, Denise Griffing 2016 Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus) at a Bait Station 
PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371 / journal.pone.0156730 May 31, 2016

Noel Vella, Adriana Vella

VNTRS in the MTDNA Control Region of the Bluntnose Sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus

Conference: 41st CIESM Congress At: Kiel, Germany, 12 September - 16 September 2016  Volume: Vol. 41

Noel Vella, Adriana Vella

Classification of Species within the Genus Hexanchus and Heptranchias through MTDNA Sequences.

Conference: CIESM Congress March 2013 At: Marseille, France

Volume: Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Médit., 40, 2013 p 706

Noel Vella, Adriana Vella

A Preliminary  Study of the Bluntnose Sixgill Shark, Hexanchus griseus, in the Central Mediterranean Region, Around The Maltese Islands

November 2009

Conference: CIESM 2009 At: Venice

Volume: Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Médit., 39, 2010 p695

Celona, A., De Maddalena, A. and Romeo, T., 2005. 

Bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus (Bonnaterre, 1788), in the eastern north Sicilian waters. 

Bollettino del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Venezia, 56, pp.137-151.

David A. Ebert 1994 
Diet Of The Sixgill Shark, Hexanchus griseus Off Southern Africa 
S.Afr. J. mar. Sci.14. 213-218  1994


David A. Ebert 1986 
Biological Aspects Of The Sixgill Shark (Hexanchus griseus) 
Copeia 1986(1) pp 131 – 135


Sutanto Hadi, Noviar Andayani, Efin Muttaqin, Benaya M. Simeon, Muhammad Ichsan, Beginer Subhan, Hawis Madduppa

Genetic connectivity of the scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini across  Indonesia and the Western Indian Ocean

PLoS ONE · October 2020

Sorisio, L.S., De Maddalena, A. and Visser, I.N., 2006. 

Interaction between killer whales (Orcinus orca) and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna sp.) in Galápagos waters. 

Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals, 5(1), pp.69-71.  ISSN 1676-7497

Celona, A. and De Maddalena, A., 2005. 

Occurrence of hammerhead sharks (chondrichthyes: sphyrnidae) in waters off Sicily (central Mediterranean): historical and recent data. 

In Annales: Series Historia Naturalis (Vol. 15, No. 1, p. 57). Scientific and Research Center of the Republic of Slovenia.

Kajiura, S.M., Forni, J.B. and Summers, A.P., 2003. 

Maneuvering in juvenile carcharhinid and sphyrnid sharks: the role of the hammerhead shark cephalofoil. 

Zoology, 106(1), pp.19-28.

Nelson, P., Kajiura, S. and Losey, G., 2003. 

Exposure to solar radiation may increase ocular UV-filtering in the juvenile scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrnalewini. 

Marine Biology, 142(1), pp.53-56.

Young, F.A., Kajiura, S.M., Visser, G.J., Correia, J.P. and Smith, M.F., 2002. 

Notes on the long‐term transport of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini). 

Zoo Biology: Published in affiliation with the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, 21(3), pp.243-251.

Kajiura, S.M., 2001. 

Head morphology and electrosensory pore distribution of carcharhinid and sphyrnid sharks. 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, 61(2), pp.125-133.

Hazin, F., Fischer, A. and Broadhurst, M., 2001. 

Aspects of reproductive biology of the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini, off northeastern Brazil. 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, 61(2), pp.151-159.


Yopak, K.E. and Frank, L.R., 2009. 

Brain size and brain organization of the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, using magnetic resonance imaging. 

Brain, behavior and evolution, 74(2), pp.121-142.

Duffy, C.A.J., 2002. 

Distribution, seasonality, lengths, and feeding behaviour of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) observed in New Zealand waters. 

New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research,  Vol. 36: 565–570

Eckert, S.A., Dolar, L.L., Kooyman, G.L., Perrin, W. and Rahman, R.A., 2002. 

Movements of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) in South‐east Asian waters as determined by satellite telemetry. 

Journal of Zoology, 257(1), pp.111-115.

Eckert, S.A. and Stewart, B.S., 2001. 

Telemetry and satellite tracking of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Sea of Cortez, Mexico, and the north Pacific Ocean. 

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Science, 48(1251), pp.622-627.


Andrej A. Gajić 2022 
New hope for the critically endangered Common Angel shark (Squatina squatina) in the Adriatic Sea 
Fisheries · February 2022 DOI: 10.2478/cjf-2022-0001


Nehmens MC, Varney RM, Janosik AM and Ebert DA, 2021, An Exploratory Study of Telomere Length in the Deep-Sea Shark, Etmopterus granulosus.
Front. Mar. Sci. 8:642872. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.642872

Jérôme Delroisse, Laurent Duchatelet, Patrick Flammang and Jérôme Mallefet

Photophore Distribution and  Enzymatic Diversity Within the Photogenic Integument of the Cookie-Cutter Shark Isistius brasiliensis (Chondrichthyes: Dalatiidae)

Frontiers in Marine Science April 2021 | Volume 8 | Article 627045

Jessica L. Rudd, Owen M. Exeter, Jackie Hall, Graham Hall, Suzanne M. Henderson, Christopher Kerry, Matthew J. Witt & Lucy A. Hawkes, 2021,
High resolution biologging of breaching by the world’s second largest shark species. 

Scientific Reports (2021) 11:5236

Bianca de Sousa Rangel, Renata Guimarães Moreira, Yuri Vieira Niella, James A. Sulikowski, Neil Hammerschlag, 2021, 
Metabolic and nutritional condition of juvenile tiger sharks exposed to regional differences in coastal urbanization 
Science of the Total Environment 780 (2021) 146548

Jérôme Mallefet1, Darren W. Stevens and Laurent Duchatelet

Bioluminescence of the Largest  Luminous Vertebrate, the Kitefin Shark, Dalatias licha: First Insights and Comparative Aspects

Frontiers in Marine Science February 2021 | Volume 8 | Article 633582

De Oliveira, J.A., Ellis, J.R. and Dobby, H., 2013. 

Incorporating density dependence in pup production in a stock assessment of NE Atlantic spurdog Squalus acanthias. 

ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70(7), pp.1341-1353.

Adriana Vella, Noel Vella and Elizabeth Dent 2013 
First Records Of The Little Sleeper Shark, Somniosus Rostratus, In Maltese Fisheries’ Landings. 
Jan 2013 CIESM 2013


Caruso, J. and Bor, P.H.F., 2007. 

Egg capsule morphology of Parascyllium variolatum (Duméril, 1853)(Chondrichthyes; Parascylliidae), with notes on oviposition rate in captivity. 

Journal of Fish Biology, 70(5), pp.1620-1625.

Ian K. Fergusson, Ken J. Graham, Leonard J. V. Compagno 2007
Distribution, abundance and biology of the smalltooth sandtiger shark Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810) (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae)
Environ Biol Fish (2008) 81:207–228

Litvinov, F.F., 2006. 

On the role of dense aggregations of males and juveniles in the functional structure of the range of the blue shark Prionace glauca. 

Journal of Ichthyology, 46(8), pp.613-624.

Pérez Jiménez, J.C., Nishizaki, O.S. and Castillo Geniz, J.L., 2005. 

A new eastern North Pacific smoothhound shark (genus Mustelus, family Triakidae) from the Gulf of California. 

Copeia, 2005(4), pp.834-845.

Hammerschlag, N. and Fallows, C., 2005. 

Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis) at the Bassas da India atoll: First record from the Mozambique Channel and possible significance as a nursery area. 

South African Journal of Science, 101(7-8), pp.375-377.

Porcher, I.F., 2005. 

On the gestation period of the blackfin reef shark, Carcharhinus melanopterus, in waters off Moorea, French Polynesia. 

Marine Biology, 146(6), pp.1207-1211.

Storai, T., Zuffa, M., Celona, A. and DE Maddalena, A., 

Historical and contemporary presence of the Porbeagle, (Lamna nasus) (Bonnaterre, 1788), in Italian waters (Mediterranean Sea). 

Annales - Ser. his. nat 15 - 2005 - 2. 

Martin, R.A., 2004. 

Natural mortality of puffadder shysharks due to Cape fur seals and black‐backed kelp gulls at Seal Island, South Africa. 

Journal of fish biology, 64(3), pp.711-716.

I. F. Porcher, 2004. 

On the gestation period of the blackfin reef shark, Carcharhinus melanopterus, in waters off Mooree, French Polynesia 

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McFarlane, G.A. and King, J.R., 2003. 

Migration patterns of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the North Pacific Ocean. 

Fishery Bulletin, 101(2), pp.358-367.

Donley, J.M. and Shadwick, R.E., 2003. 

Steady swimming muscle dynamics in the leopard shark Triakis semifasciata. 

Journal of Experimental Biology, 206(7), pp.1117-1126.

Carlson, J.K., Cortés, E. and Bethea, D.M., 2003. 

Life history and population dynamics of the finetooth shark (Carcharhinus isodon) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. 

Fishery Bulletin, 101(2), pp.281-292.

Carrier, J.C., Murru, F.L., Walsh, M.T. and Pratt Jr, H.L., 2003. 

Assessing reproductive potential and gestation in nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum) using ultrasonography and endoscopy: an example of bridging the gap between field research and captive studies. 

Zoo Biology: Published in affiliation with the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, 22(2), pp.179-187.

Saville, K.J., Lindley, A.M., Maries, E.G., Carrier, J.C. and Pratt, H.L., 2002. 

Multiple paternity in the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, 63(3), pp.347-351.

Heithaus, M., Dill, L., Marshall, G. and Buhleier, B., 2002. 

Habitat use and foraging behavior of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in a seagrass ecosystem. 

Marine Biology, 140(2), pp.237-248.

Lucifora, L.O., Menni, R.C. and Escalante, A.H., 2002. 

Reproductive ecology and abundance of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, from the southwestern Atlantic. 

ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59(3), pp.553-561.

Sundström, L.F. and Gruber, S.H., 2002. 

Effects of capture and transmitter attachments on the swimming speed of large juvenile lemon sharks in the wild. 

Journal of Fish Biology, 61(3), pp.834-838.

Iglésias, S.P., Du Buit, M.H. and Nakaya, K., 2002. 

Egg capsules of deep-sea catsharks from eastern North Atlantic, with first descriptions of the capsule of Galeus murinus and Apristurus aphyodes (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae). 

Cybium, 26(1), pp.59-63.

Fergusson, I.K., Vacchi, M. and Serena, F., 2002, November. 

Note on the declining status of the sandtiger shark Carcharias taurus in the Mediterranean Sea.

In Fourth Meeting of the European Elasmobranch Association, Livorno, Italy (pp. 27-30). ICRAM, ARPAT & SFI.  2002  73-76

Ferry-Graham, L.A. and Gibb, A.C., 2001. 

Comparison of fasting and postfeeding metabolic rates in a sedentary shark, Cephaloscyllium ventriosum. 

Copeia, 2001(4), pp.1108-1113.

Holland, K.N., Bush, A., Meyer, C.G., Kajiura, S., Wetherbee, B.M. and Lowe, C.G., 2001. 

Five tags applied to a single species in a single location: the tiger shark experience. 

In Electronic Tagging and Tracking in Marine Fisheries (pp. 237-247). Springer, Dordrecht.

Guallart, J. and Vicent, J.J., 2001. 

Changes in composition during embryo development of the gulper shark, Centrophorus granulosus (Elasmobranchii, Centrophoridae): an assessment of maternal-embryonic nutritional relationships. 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, 61(2), pp.135-150.

Valeiras, J., López, A. and García, M., 2001. 

Geographical, seasonal occurrence and incidental fishing captures of basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Chondricthyes: Cetorhinidae). 

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 81(1), p.183.

Mollet, H.F., Cliff, G., Pratt Jr, H.L. and Stevens, J., 2000. 

Reproductive biology of the female shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810, with comments on the embryonic development of lamnoids. 

Fishery Bulletin, (2). 98:299–318

Yamaguchi, A., Taniuchi, T. and Shimizu, M., 2000. 

Geographic variations in reproductive parameters of the starspotted dogfish, Mustelus manazo, from five localities in Japan and in Taiwan. 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, 57(2), pp.221-233.

Heupel, M.R., Whittier, J.M. and Bennett, M.B., 1999. 

Plasma steroid hormone profiles and reproductive biology of the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum. 

Journal of Experimental Zoology, 284(5), pp.586-594.

Nakaya, K., 1998. 

A new species of deepwater catshark, Apristurus aphyodes n. sp., from the eastern North Atlantic (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii: Scyliorhinidae). 

Archive of Fishery and Marine Research, 46(1), pp.77-90.

Wise, G., Mulvey, J.M. and Renshaw, G.M., 1998. 

Hypoxia tolerance in the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum). 

Journal of Experimental Zoology, 281(1), pp.1-5.

Widder, E.A., 1998. 

A predatory use of counter-illumination by the squaloid shark, Isistius brasiliensis. 

Environmental Biology of Fishes, 53(3), pp.267-273.

Cooper, A.R. and Morris, S., 1998. 

The blood respiratory, haematological, acid-base and ionic status of the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, during recovery from anaesthesia and surgery: a comparison with sampling by direct caudal puncture. 

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 119(4), pp.895-903.

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Structure and formation of the egg capsule tendrils in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 343(1305), pp.285-302.

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American Midland Naturalist, 88, pp.496-497.

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Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis) and leafscale gulper shark (Centrophorus squamosus) in the Northeast Atlantic  in ICES Areas I XIV   

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ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59(6), pp.1263-1269.

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The oldest fossil record of the megamouth shark from the late Eocene of Denmark, and comments on the enigmatic megachasmid origin 

Article Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 61 (x): xxx-xxx Dec 2016

Kenshu Shimada, Evgeny V. Popov, Mikael Siversson, Bruce J. Welton & Douglas J. Long 2015 

A new clade of putative plankton-feeding sharks from the Upper Cretaceous of Russia and the United States 

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology

Kenshu Shimada Bruce Welton Douglas Long  2014 

A New Fossil Megamouth Shark (Lamniformes, Megachasmidae) from the Oligocene—Miocene of the Western United States
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A review of the hybodont sharks from the Mesozoic of Thailand. 

In Proceedings of the International Conference on Geology, Geotechnology and Mineral Resources of Indochina. Khon Kaen University (pp. 588-593). (GEOINDO 2005), Thailand

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Hybodont sharks from the Early Cretaceous of Thailand. 

In Fourth International Meeting on Mesozoic Fishes-Systematics, Homology and Nomenclature (pp. 77-80).

Cuny, G., Ouaja, M., Srarfi, D., Schmitz, L., Buffetaut, E. and Benton, M.J., 2004. 

Fossil sharks from the Early Cretaceous of Tunisia. 

Revue de Paléobiologie, 9, pp.127-142.

Cuny, G., Suteethorn, V. and Buffetaut, E., 2004. 

Freshwater hybodont sharks from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand. 

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Cuny, G.G.R., Suteethorn, V., Buffetaut, E. and Philippe, M., 2003. 

Hybodont sharks from the Mesozoic Khorat Group of Thailand. 

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Discovery of the Middle-Late Triassic elasmobranch ichthyoliths from the Guanling area, Guizhou, SW China 

Geological Bulletin of China Vol. 22, No. 4, Apr.

Cuny, G., Rieppel, O. and SANDER, P.M., 2001. 

The shark fauna from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of north-western Nevada. 

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 133(3), pp.285-301.

Cuny, G., Hunt, A., Mazin, J.M. and Rauscher, R., 2000. 

Teeth of enigmatic neoselachian sharks and an ornithischian dinosaur from the uppermost Triassic of Lons-le-Saunier (Jura, France). 

Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 74(1-2), pp.171-185.

Cuny, G. and Benton, M.J., 1999. 

Early radiation of the neoselachian sharks in Western Europe. 

Geobios, 32(2), pp.193-204.

Godefroit, P., Cuny, G., Delsate, D. and Roche, M., 1998. 

Late Triassic vertebrates from Syren (Luxembourg). 

Neues Jahrbuch Fur Geologie und Palaontologie Abhandlungen, 210, pp.305-343.

Cuny, G., 998. 

Primitive neoselachian sharks: a survey. 

Oryctos, 1, pp.3-21.

Cuny, G., Martin, M., Rauscher, R. and Mazin, J.M., 1998. 

A new neoselachian shark from the Upper Triassic of Grozon (Jura, France). 

Geological Magazine, 135(5), pp.657-668.


ICCAT (Madrid, Spain, 30 September to 4 October 2019)


National laws, multi-lateral agreements, regional and global regulations on shark protection and shark finning
December 2011

European Shark Week opens With Call to “Make The Push” to Protect Europe’s Sharks

Van Osch, S., Shark Alliance, 2011. 


Save Our Sharks: Using International Fisheries Law Within Regional Fisheries Management Organizations to Improve Shark Conservation. 
The Michigan Journal of International Law, 33, p.383.

What Lies Beneath.  
Laivera, N,  2010, Sunday Circle Magazine of Times of Malta, August, pg. 36, 37, 38

The Shark’s World – Hammerheads.
A. Buttigieg & A. Schwartz,
 Issue 2, Dec. 2008.

Shark Declines in the Mediterranean Sea,  


Heithaus, M.R., Frid, A., Wirsing, A.J. and Worm, B., 2008. 
Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines. 
Trends in ecology & evolution, 23(4), pp.202-210.  (work was supported by NSF grant OCE-0526065 to MRH, a Lenfest Ocean’s Program grant)


The shark’s electric sense. 
Fields, R.D., 2007. Scientific American, 297(2), pp.74-81.


De Maddalena, A., Van Sommeran, S. and Leander, W., 2007. 
Declaration, manifesto for immediate worldwide shark conservation actions. 
In Annales: Series Historia Naturalis (Vol. 17, No. 1, p. 151). Scientific and Research Center of the Republic of Slovenia.


De Maddalena, Alessandro; Buttigieg, Alexander, 2006.  
The social lives of hammerheads.

Publication: World and I Online


The Global Shark Crisis
WildAid Leaflet


Tracking Ocean Migrators 
Montgomery , Sy,   


Bandit’s Story: The Real-life Rescue of a Great White Shark
Paul, Melanie


Who’s the real killer
Preston, T., 1995. , E Magazine: The Enviro Mag, 6(6), pp.18-19.


The shadows of the sea: people fear shark, but they are vital to the sea. 
Rudloe, J and Rudloe A, 1989,   Sports llustrated Dec 4, v71 n23 p97(7)


Misunderstood monsters. 
Benchley, P., 1995. Outdoor Life, 195(3), pp.16-19.


Ocean planet: writings and images of the Sea. 
Benchley, P., 1995. Harry N Abrams Incorporated


Swimming with sharks. 
Benchley, P, 1998. National Audubon Society, 100(3), pp.52-57.


At Rock Bottom – The Declining Sharks of the Eastern Tropical Pacific
Watts, S & Wu, V., 2005,  WildAid  p2-30


The End Of The Line, 
WildAid, 2002, p6-60


Sharks at all time low, 
ECOS (CSIRO Magazine)   October – December 2001,   p35

Don’t go near the water–the influence of the film Jaws on US culture 
Hoberman, J., 1994. –American Myths’.


When the tables are turned.   
Bosveld, J.  Omni, p14


The Great White’s Ways
Martin, J.,  1999, Discover, p56-61


Sharky Shores

Bos , T., . & Casagrande, A.B.  IV, 2005,  The Big Issue. p28-30

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